• Tommie Benjamin posted an update 4 months, 2 weeks ago

    In our study we observed that MT produced a 50% improvement in the % area of tissues covered over that of H&E. It is possible that its three-in-one (trichrome) combination of dyes may be responsible for the large % area covered and high intensity measurement. This is in line with the report of Street et al., who stated that MT is a widely used stain in Histology. MT is primarily used to enhance the visibility of collagen and elastic fibres and most tissues in the body contain these fibres.Adenomyosis refers to the growth of the basal layer of the endometrium into the myometrium. The elevated % area covered by MT in adenomyosis is an indication that adenomyosis muscle glucokinase have the capacity to absorb stain and has a large surface area, as a result of its dense fascicles with elongated cytoplasm and nuclei having a finely dispersed chromatin.Squamous cell carcinoma was the most covered and intensified tissue in our study, which may be due to the numerous malignant cells and their metachromatic nature. Our observation is in line with the publication of the British Association for the Advancement of Science where it was noted that malignant cells take up stains two to three times more than the normal cells. This affirms why malignant lesions had a higher intensity and % area measurement than the benign lesions with MT. These findings support the work of Ouyang et al., who reported that MT is superior to H&E in the examination of tissue sections, and concluded that MT would be a valuable tool for analysing autopsy tissues. The % area covered by stains and intensity measurement aid in the visualization of cells and tissues. However, poor coverage and intensity may obscure accurate and reliable diagnosis.ConclusionConflict of interestIntroductionBreast cancer has one of the highest rates of cancer incidence among females in Yemen. Previous studies focusing on populations from the Aden and Sana\’a areas have reported that breast cancer accounts for 30% and 26.9% of cancer cases in women, respectively. Although Aden\’s Cancer Registry reported the age-standardized rate (ASR) of breast cancer to be 9.6 per 100,000 females, the Globocan (2012) has estimated a higher rate of 27.4 per 100,000 Yemeni females. However, the reported incidence of this type of cancer in Yemen is far from the incidence rate reported in industrialized countries, such as the United States (ASR = 92.9/100,000) and the United Kingdom (ASR = 126/100,000).Quantifying the burden of the disease provides useful input into health policy dialogue. It also assists in the identification of conditions and risk factors that may be relatively neglected, or even highlights other factors with uncharacteristic progress or impact. Estimation of the disease burden can only improve as further data are collected and methods are refined. For example, studies that measure the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of breast cancer patients account for the effects of cancer at younger ages, when people are more likely to be working, raising children and supporting other family members more than other commonly used measures such as death rates alone. In addition, DALYs looks at both years of life lost (YLL) because of premature deaths from cancer, and years lived with a cancer-related disability or impairment (YLD).MethodsThe data in this study were derived from 3 sources: the Aden Cancer Centre (ACC) in Yemen (as original data), GLOBOCAN 2012, and the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) (available at The data on breast cancer was originally retrieved from ACC for the period 1997–2011, those from GLOBOCAN 2012 were published in 2013, and those from IHME were published in 2011 for the period 1990–2010. Variables included in the analysis were those related to the breast cancer mortality rate per 100,000 Yemeni females measured in YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs.

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