Anson Mcpherson posted an update 1 month ago
Model adjustment was also done for the type of CT scanner used. A negative binomial regression model, adjusted for age, gender, race, pack-years, BMI, FEV1 (% of predicted value) and follow-up duration (year), was used to model exacerbation frequency, given its skewed distribution. Statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS software (version 19.0; IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), and P-values of less than 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Of 5699 subjects recruited in the COPDGene study and analysed, 3758 (65.9%) reported use of menthol find more cigarettes. Demographic comparisons between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are summarized in Table?1. Compared with non-menthol smokers, menthol cigarette smokers were younger in age (54.4?��?6.9 vs 58.2?��?8.0 years, P?<?0.001). Menthol cigarette smokers were more frequently African-American (66.3 vs 17.4%, P?<?0.001) and had a fewer pack-year history of smoking (41.1?��?22.3 vs 46.5?��?24.7 years, P?<?0.001). Menthol cigarette users smoked their first cigarette at a younger age and had higher BMI than non-menthol cigarette smokers. Menthol cigarette smokers exhibited better lung function (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC) and a lower percentage of COPD defined by spirometry, but tended to have shorter 6MWT distance and greater mMRC scores. The proportions of subjects with chronic cough, chronic sputum production or current use of respiratory medications were significantly less for menthol than for non-menthol cigarette smokers. The multivariable analysis to determine the predictors for menthol cigarette use is displayed in Table?2. In the models comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, younger age, female gender and African-American race were significant predictors of use of menthol cigarettes. During a mean follow-up time of 1.49 years (range 0.08�C3.42 years), menthol cigarette smokers experienced more frequent severe exacerbation annually compared with non-menthol smokers (0.22?��?0.99 vs 0.18?��?0.98 per year, P?=?0.008), although there was no significant difference between subjects with and without menthol exposure in annual exacerbation (Table?3). We assessed differences in comorbidity prevalence based upon the use of menthol cigarettes. Compared with non-menthol, menthol cigarette smokers reported less frequently physician-determined diagnoses of cardiovascular diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, gastro-oesophageal reflux and osteoporosis. However, there were no significant differences in cerebrovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes. Menthol cigarette smokers exhibited significantly less emphysema and gas trapping on chest CT than non-menthol cigarette smokers (3.1?��?5.9 vs 4.2?��?7.2, P?<?0.001; and 15.5?��?15.6 vs 19.0?��?17.7, P?<?0.001).