• Odie Beyer posted an update 1 week, 2 days ago

    ResultsExcept group I as negative control (no treatment), all treatment group showed IL-6 CGP 41251 on inflamed rats dental pulp tissue after 6h, 2days, 4days and 7days application, but the expression was decreased with the longer of observation time periods. However, EEP was looks more stronger than other material test in inhibit IL-6 expression on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue (Fig. 1). No evidences of necrotic pulp tissues in all groups of animals were found throughout the study. For the sake of clarity and brevity, the photomicrograph of IL-6 expression is presented here in only by the section from all groups at 6h and 7days (Fig. 2).The results of Freidman test revealed that there was no significant difference of IL-6 expression among time periods for each group (Table 1). Meanwhile, Kruskal Wallis test showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) of IL-6 expression between group I and other groups in 6h and 2days but not in 4days and 7days time periods (Table 2).DiscussionInterleukin-6 displays multiple biological effects and acts as a major mediator of the host response following tissue injury and infection as well as inflammation. Study by El Salhy et al. (2013) showed that levels of IL-8 and the ratios of IL-6/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-10 have the potential to be indicators of dental pulp inflammation in caries exposure cases. The level of IL-6 was significantly higher in tooth with caries exposure and irreversible pulpitis as compared to healthy tooth, so he suggest that cytokine estimation in pulpal blood may help in the diagnosis of pulpal inflammation. Previous study also detected the presence of IL-6 in dental granulomas (De Sa et al., 2003) and high levels of IL-6 in inflamed human dental pulp and periapical lesions compared with healthy pulp, suggesting that IL-6 is released locally in endodontic lesions (Barkhordar et al., 1999). Furthermore, IL-6 levels were found to be elevated in symptomatic human periapical lesions compared with asymptomatic lesions and uninflamed periradicular tissues, suggesting that excessive IL-6 release may be linked with worsening of inflammation and therefore of the clinical symptoms (Prso et al., 2007).Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of propolis and its constituents have been study by a number of researchers. The results of this study demonstrated that 6h after EEP and Ca(OH)2 application, only weak expression of IL-6 occured on inflamed rat dental pulp. In contrast, propolis-derived flavonoids as well as non-flavonoids stimulated moderate and strong IL-6 expression at the same time period, but this expression was decreased with the longer of observation time periods. In addition, EEP was looks more stronger than other material test in inhibit IL-6 expression on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue. Our previous study also found the suppression of dental pulp inflammation by propolis (Sabir, 2005).The present results are not surprising, since propolis was known to have anti-inflammatory properties, perhaps via suppression of immune cell activation, macrophage-derived nitric oxide, neutrophil activation and cytokines production (Sforcin, 2007). However, in this present study, the exact mechanism of propolis to suppress IL-6 production still unclear, perhaps via suppression of activation and differentiation of mononuclear macrophages (Fuliang et al., 2005). The anti-inflammatory activity of propolis not only depends on the presence of flavonoids and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), but also by additional active compounds, such as ferulic acid, (hydroxyl) cinnamic acid and diterpene derivatives (Borelli et al., 2002; Ramos and Miranda, 2007). Study by Bachiega et al. (2012) on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice found that IL-6 production was significantly inhibit by propolis and phenolic compound in propolis such as cinnamic and coumaric acids. However, no single ingredient is predominantly active rather than all work together (Sforcin and Bankova, 2011).

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